• IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD Department of Chemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
  • JAMILU USMAN Centre for Membranes and Water Security, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
  • AMINA ABUBAKAR ZAURO Centre for Membranes and Water Security, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.


phytochemical screening, antibacterial analysis, antibiotics, carrot leaves, drug resistance


In recent years, there has been a gradual revival of interest in the use of medicinal plants in developing countries because herbal medicines have been reported to be well tolerated when compared with synthetic drugs. In view of this, the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Daucus carota leaves was investigated. The extraction of the leaves shows the carrot leaves has percentage moisture content of 67.00% with mass and percentage yield of 3.16 g, 6.32%. 0.90 g, 2.895, and 0.40 g, 1.35% for the hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions respectively, while the phytochemical screening of different extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and steroids but no tannins, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinones. The antibacterial activity showed that the drug used as positive control (amoxicillin) and various Daucus carota leaves extract possesses antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and Shigella at prepared concentrations of 0.25 mg/mL, 0.50 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL and 2.00 mg/mL. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations observed were 0.25 mg/mL for almost all the extract. The minimum bactericidal concentration against S. aureus for all the extract was 0.25 mg/mL 0.50 mg/mL, 1.00 mg/mL and 2.00 mg/mL The results of both the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity shows that Daucus carota leaves has good potentials for development of new antibacterial drugs.


Agomuo, J.K., Akajiaku, L.O., Alaka, I.C., Taiwo, M. (2016): Mineral and antinutrients of fresh and squeeze washed bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) as affected by traditional de-bittering methods. – European Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(2): 21-30.

Ahmadua, A.A., Zezi, A.U., Yaro, A.H. (2007): Anti-diarrheal activity of the leaf extracts of Daniellia oliveri Hutch and Dalz (Fabaceae) and Ficus sycomorus Miq (Moraceae). – African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 4(4): 524-528.

Bahl, B.S., Bahl, A. (2012): Advanced organic chemistry. – S Chand 1528p.

Cushnie, T.T., Lamb, A.J. (2005): Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. – International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 26(5): 343-356.

El-Olemy, M.M., Al-Muhtadi, F.J., Afifi, A.A. (1994): Experimental phytochemistry. A Laboratory Manual. – Saudi Arabia: King Saud University Press Riyadh 137p.

FAO, W. (2001): Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO-WHO Expert Consultation. Bangkok: Food and Agricultural Organization. – World Health Organization 303p.

Galeotti, F., Barile, E., Curir, P., Dolci, M., Lanzotti, V. (2008): Flavonoids from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and their antifungal activity. – Phytochemistry Letters 1(1): 44-48.

Garrod, L.P., Lambert, H.P., O’Grady, F. (1973): Antibiotic and chemotherapy. – Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone 546p.

Halilu, M.E., October, N., Balogun, M., Agunu, A., Abubakar, A., Abubakar, M.S. (2013): Isolation and characterization of steroids from petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Parinari curatellifolia Planch ex. Benth (Chrysobalanaceae). – Journal of Natural Sciences Research 3(6): 53-61.

Herborne, J.B. (1973): Phytochemical methods. – A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis 2: 5-11.

Khameneh, B., Iranshahy, M., Soheili, V., Fazly Bazzaz, B.S. (2019): Review on plant antimicrobials: a mechanistic viewpoint. – Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 8(1): 1-28.

Rhen, T., Cidlowski, J.A. (2005): Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids-new mechanisms for old drugs. – New England Journal of Medicine 353(16): 1711-1723.

Salunkhe, D.K., Chavan, J.K. (1989): Dietary tannins: consequences and remedies. – CRC Press 208p.

Sule, W.F., Okonko, I.O., Omo-Ogun, S., Nwanze, J.C., Ojezele, M.O., Ojezele, O.J., Alli, J.A., Soyemi, E.T., Olaonipekun, T.O. (2011): Phytochemical properties and in-vitro antifungal activity of Senna alata Linn. crude stem bark extract. – J Med Plants Res 5(2): 176-183.

Usman, H., Osuji, J.C. (2007): Phytochemical and in vitro antimicrobial assay of the leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis. – African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 4(4): 476-480.

Velavan, S. (2015): Phytochemical techniques-a review. – World Journal of Science and Research 1(2): 80-91.

Yelne, M.B., Sharma, P.C., Dennis, T.J. (2000): Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda. – Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New-Delhi 2(1): 69-73.




How to Cite

MUHAMMAD, I., USMAN, J., & ZAURO, A. A. (2023). PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ANALYSIS OF CARROT LEAVES EXTRACT. Quantum Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 4(4), 11–18. Retrieved from