• NOR HALIM HASAN Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resource, Sarawak, Malaysia.
  • SYAZWAN SYAH ZULKIFLY School of Business Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah, Malaysia.
  • MOHD RAFEE BAHARUDIN Faculty of Medical and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • MUHAMMAD RAZIF MAHADI Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • SHARIFAH NORKHADIJAH SYED ISMAIL Faculty of Medical and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.


safety behaviour, safety intervention, supervisor, manufacturing, Malaysia


Over the last decade, work-related accidents have been a major concern in Malaysia. Manufacturing continues to be the leading cause of accident cases. Previously published research revealed that unsafe behaviour committed by workers is the predominant factor for workplace accidents. Programs that promote safe behaviour among employees may help prevent work-related accidents. In Malaysia, various studies on safety behaviour as antecedents of workplace accidents have been undertaken, and it has been determined that failing to follow SOP and appropriately use PPE are the primary risky behaviours that result in accidents. Thus, intervention programs aimed at preventing such risky activities appear to be critical for reducing workplace accidents, particularly in the manufacturing sector. However, there is a dearth of such empirical intervention studies conducted in the Malaysian industry. The purpose of this study is to perform an intervention program aimed at enhancing worker safety behaviour through the supervisor's guidance in doing hazard self-assessment. Supervisors from high-risk manufacturing enterprises received a one-day instruction on the workplace hazard self-assessment module and were instructed to perform the intervention for 12 weeks with their employees. To test the effectiveness of the intervention program, a quasi-experimental design with a control group was employed. The findings demonstrated a substantial difference in safety behaviour between the intervention and control groups following the program, confirming the intervention's effectiveness.


Ayob, A., Shaari, A.A., Zaki, M.F.M., Munaaim, M.A.C. (2018): Fatal occupational injuries in the Malaysian construction sector-causes and accidental agents. – IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 140(1): 11p.

Bahn, S.T. (2012): Workplace hazard identification: What do people know and how is it done? – Annual Conference of the Association of Industrial Relations Academics Australia and New Zealand 9p.

Beus, J.M., McCord, M.A., Zohar, D. (2016): Workplace safety: A review and research synthesis. – Organizational Psychology Review 6(4): 352-381.

Bowonder, B. (1987): Industrial hazard management An analysis of the Bhopal accident. – Project Appraisal 2(3): 157-167.

Campbell, D.T., Stanley, J.C. (1963): Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research in information science. – Houghton Mifflin Company 88p.

Chen, Q., Jin, R. (2012): Safety4Site commitment to enhance jobsite safety management and performance. – Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 138(4): 509-519.

Clarke, S. (2006): The relationship between safety climate and safety performance: A meta-analytic review. – Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 11(4): 315-327.

Cooper, D. (2015): Effective Safety Leadership. – Professional Safety 60(2): 49-53.

Cooper, M.D., Phillips, R.A. (2004): Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. – Journal of Safety Research 35(5): 497-512.

Davis, J.A. (1971): Elementary survey analysis. – Prentice-Hall 195p.

Fitriani, A., Nawawiwetu, E.D. (2017): The relationship between antecedent and consequence factors with safety behaviour in PT.X. – Journal Of Vocational Health Studies 1(2): 50-57.

Gastwirth, J.L., Gel, Y.R., Miao, W. (2009): The impact of Levene’s Test of equality of variances on statistical theory and practice. – Statistical Science 24(3): 343-360.

George, D., Mallery, P. (2016): IBM SPSS Statistics 23 Step by Step - A Simple Guide and Reference. – Routledge 400p.

Goh, Y.M., Sa’adon, N.F. (2015): Cognitive factors influencing safety behavior at height: A multimethod exploratory study. – Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 141(6): 1-8.

Guo, B.H.W., Yiu, T.W., González, V.A. (2016): Predicting safety behavior in the construction industry: Development and test of an integrative model. – Safety Science 84: 1-11.

Gyekye, S.A. (2010): Occupational safety management: The role of causal attribution. – International Journal of Psychology 45(6): 405-416.

Heinrich, H.W. (1941): Industrial Accident Prevention : A Scientific Approach. – McGraw-Hill Book of Company 488p.

Hussin, Z.H., Jusoff, K., Ju, S.Y., Kong, L.K. (2009): Accidents in the food-manufacturing small and medium sized malaysian industries. – Asian Social Science 4(8): 27-31.

Ismail, S.N.S., Rangga, J.U., Rasdi, I., Abd Rahman, U.R., Samah, M.A.A. (2018): Mobile Apps Application to Improve Safety and Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among University Students. – Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences 14(5): 47-55.

Kao, K.Y., Spitzmueller, C., Cigularov, K., Thomas, C.L. (2019): Linking safety knowledge to safety behaviours: a moderated mediation of supervisor and worker safety attitudes. – European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 28(2): 206-220.

Khoo, T.H., Surienty, L., Selamat, M.N. (2016): Safety training and safety behaviour at in the malaysian SME. – Journal Occupational Safety & Health 13(2): 55-62.

Khosravi, Y., Asilian-Mahabadi, H., Hajizadeh, E., Hassanzadeh-Rangi, N., Bastani, H., Behzadan, A.H. (2014): Factors influencing unsafe behaviors and accidents on construction sites: A review. – International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics 20(1): 111-125.

Kim, H.-Y. (2013): Statistical notes for clinical researchers: assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis. – Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics 38(1): 52-54.

Krishnan, P. (2019): A review of the non-equivalent control group post-test-only design. – Nurse Researcher 26(2): 37-40.

Legg, S.J., Olsen, K.B., Laird, I.S., Hasle, P. (2015): Managing safety in small and medium enterprises. – Safety Science 71: 189-196.

Liu, X., Yang, J., Cheng, F., Li, L. (2016): Newborn parent based intervention to increase child safety seat use. – International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13(8): 10p.

Lu, C.S., Yang, C.S. (2010): Safety leadership and safety behavior in container terminal operations. – Safety Science 48(2): 123-134.

Lu, C.S., Shang, K.C. (2005): An empirical investigation of safety climate in container terminal operators. – Journal of Safety Research 36(3): 297-308.

Mansur, N., Zakaria, N.H., Abdullah, Z. (2011): Understanding common dimensions of accident in malaysia. – Business and Management Review 1(6): 22-33.

Mashi, M.S., Subramaniam, C., Johari, J. (2018): The effect of management commitment to safety, and safety communication and feedback on safety behavior of nurses: the moderating role of consideration of future safety consequences. – International Journal of Human Resource Management 31(20): 2565-2594.

Mazlina Zaira, M., Hadikusumo, B.H.W. (2017): Structural equation model of integrated safety intervention practices affecting the safety behaviour of workers in the construction industry. – Safety Science 98: 124-135.

Miltenberger, R. . (2008): Behavior modification: principles and procedures. – Thompson Wadsworth 632p.

Mohamed, Y., Abu Bakar, B., Behak, F.P., Darmi, R. (2018): Asas metodologi penyelidikan praktikal. – Penerbit USIM 295p.

Morrish, C. (2017): Incident prevention tools–incident investigations and pre-job safety analyses. – International Journal of Mining Science and Technology 27(4): 635-640.

Mousavi, S.S., Cudney, E.A., Trucco, P. (2017): What are the antecedents of safety performance in the workplace? A critical review of literature. – Proceedings of the 2017 Industrial and Systems Engineering Conference 6p.

Mustafa, M., Badlishah, S., Abdul Razak, U. (2017): Hubungan di antara komitmen keselamatan dan prestasi keselamatan pemandu-pemandu. – Journal of Global Business and Social Entrepreneurship 3(9): 12-24.

Mustafa, M. Bin, Aidil, M., Harun, B. (2015): Hubungan antara iklim keselamatan dengan prestasi keselamatan pekerjaan di ILJTM lembah klang. – SkillsMalaysia Journal 1(1): 107-115.

Nunally, J.C., Bernstein, I.H. (1994): Psychometric theory. – McGraw-Hill 752p.

Orcan, F. (2020): Parametric or Non-parametric: Skewness to Test Normality for Mean Comparison. – International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education 7(2): 236-246.

O’Toole, M. (2002): The relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety and organizational culture. – Journal of Safety Research 33(2): 231-243.

Patino, C.M., Ferreira, J.C. (2018): Inclusion and exclusion criteria in research studies: definitions and why they matter. – Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 44(2): 84-84.

Piaw, C.Y. (2012): Mastering research methods. – McGraw-Hill 575p.

Sarok, A., Susil, E. (2012): Occupational hazards in the workplace: A case of an electronic company in Sama Jaya, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. – Asian Journal of Business Research 2(1): 13p.

Sivanathan, N., Turner, N., Barling, J. (2005). Effects of transformational leadership training on employee safety performance: A quasi-experiment study. – Academy of Management Conference 2005(1): 5p.

Subramaniam, C., Mohd Shamsudin, F., Mohd Zin, M.L., Sri Ramalu, S., Hassan, Z. (2016): Safety management practices and safety compliance in small medium enterprises. – Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration 8(3): 226-244.

Tabachnick, B.G., Fidell, L.S. (2014): Using multivariate statistics. – Pearson Education Limited 1056p.

Vinodkumar, M.N., Bhasi, M. (2010): Safety management practices and safety behaviour: Assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation. – Accident Analysis and Prevention 42(6): 2082-2093.

Wiersma, W., Jurs, S.G. (2009): Research Methods in Education: An Introduction. – Pearson. Available on:

Wu, T.C., Chen, C.H., Li, C.C. (2008): A correlation among safety leadership, safety climate and safety performance. – Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 21(3): 307-318.

Xia, N., Wang, X., Griffin, M.A., Wu, C., Liu, B. (2017): Do we see how they perceive risk? An integrated analysis of risk perception and its effect on workplace safety behavior. – Accident Analysis and Prevention 106: 234-242.

Xu, S., Zou, P.X.W., Luo, H. (2018): Impact of Attitudinal Ambivalence on Safety Behaviour in Construction. – Advances in Civil Engineering 2018: 12p.

Yaacob, N.A., Rasdi, I., Zainal Abidin, E., Abdul Rahman, A., Ismail, S. (2016): Kiken yochi training (KYT) in reducing accidents at workplaces: A systematic review. – International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences 3(4): 123-132.

Zhang, Y., Wang, K., Zhang, R. (2011): Theoretical research on hazards and accident prevention. – Procedia Engineering 26: 16-24.

Zid, C., Kasim, N., Benseghir, H., Nomani Kabir, M., Bin Ibrahim, A. (2018): Developing an Effective Conceptual Framework for Safety Behaviour in Construction Industry. – ICCEE 2018 65: 1-12.

Zohar, D. (1980): Safety climate in industrial organizations: Theoretical and applied implications. – Journal of Applied Psychology 65(1): 96-102.

Zulkifly, S.S. (2020): Safety Leadership and its effect on safety knowledge-attitude-behaviour (KAB) of malaysia manufacturing workers. – International Journal of Solid State Technology 63(3): 218-229.

Zulkifly, S.S., Subramaniam, C., Hasan, N.H. (2017): Examining the influence of safety leadership towards safety behaviour in SME manufacturing. – Occupational Safety and Health 14(1): 17-23.




How to Cite