• EBADOLLAH AMOUZAD MAHDIRAJI Department of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran.


uncertainty, two-step model, scenario reduction, energy market, operation


Given that different energy carriers affect each other and that a plan to smarten power grids will be implemented in the future, one of the fundamental questions is how to integrate these systems. Therefore, in this case, the creation of organized (integrated) energy markets, i.e. electricity, gas, or other energy carrier markets is required, and the effects of these carriers on each other and on the energy market should be examined. Therefore, one of the main discussions is how to integrate these systems with centralized control. For this reason, it is necessary to examine one micro-grid or several micro-grids separately and the synergy of these micro-grids should also be examined. The main purpose is to create a framework for modeling a set of multi-carrier micro-grids to determine the optimal purchase and sale of energy in the markets of the day-before and the market-real-due to various uncertainties in micro-grids. In this paper, it is possible to study the balance between different energy carriers in several micro-grids to provide the energy needed by consumers to supply different types of loads and energy interactions between several micro-grids and energy carriers with the approach of providing energy with the lowest cost. The possibility of planning in energy supply by considering different energy markets. This dissertation is a strategy proposing the optimal purchase and sale of electricity and gas as well as the simultaneous effects of gas and electricity prices on the previous day market and real-time (instantaneous) market for several micro-grids consisting of distributed generation, renewable generation, cogeneration power plants.


Amouzad Mahdiraji, E. (2020a): Optimal Switching of Micro-grid Distributed Management based on Equilibrium Models. – Signal Processing and Renewable Energy 4(3): 67-80.

Amouzad Mahdiraji, E. (2020b): Time-Based Development Plans for Distribution Networks in the Presence of Distributed Generators and Capacitor Banks. – Journal of Scientific Perspectives 4(4): 245-254.

Amouzad Mahdiraji, E., Ramezani, N. (2020): Optimal in Smart Grids Considering Interruptible Loads and Photo-voltaic Sources Using Genetic Optimization. – Signal Processing and Renewable Energy 4(1): 37-50.

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Mahdiraji, E.A. (2020a): Introducing a New Method to Increase Critical Clearing Time (CCT) and Improve Transient Stability of Synchronous Generator Using Brake Resistance. – Gazi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi (GMBD) 6(2): 138-144.

Mahdiraji, E.A. (2020b): Investigation of Overvoltages Caused by Lightning Strikes on Transmission Lines and GIS Substation Equipment. – Computational Research Progress in Applied Science & Engineering (CRPASE) 6(4): 238-244.

Mahdiraji, E.A., Amiri, M.S. (2021a): Market Clearing due to the Reliability of Electricity Generation Units. – Advanced Journal of Science and Engineering 2(1): 42-50.

Mahdiraji, E.A., Amiri, M.S. (2021b): Optimization of Electric Vehicles Along with Power Generation Units to Improve Microgrid Reliability. – Quantum Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology 2(2): 1-15.

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Mahdiraji, E.A., Amiri, M.S., Shariatmadar, S.M. (2021b): ANALYSIS OF LIGHTNING STRIKES ON THE TRANSMISSION LINE BY CONSIDERING THE FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT MODEL. – Quantum Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology 2(6): 12-36.

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How to Cite

MAHDIRAJI, E. A. (2022). OPTIMAL PURCHASE AND SALE OF ENERGY IN ELECTRICITY MARKETS DUE TO VARIOUS UNCERTAINTIES IN MICROGRID. Quantum Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 3(1), 29–39. Retrieved from https://qjoest.com/index.php/qjoest/article/view/54