• NARIMAN NAJEEB HADAIA Computer and Information Department, Ninevah University, Mosul, Iraq.
  • SALAH ABDULGHANI ALABADY Computing Engineering Department, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq.


internet of things, RPL, low power and lossy networks LLNs, objective function, MRHOF, ETX


In the Internet of Things (IoT) concept, Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) have a significant role, which can deal with restricted infrastructure (nodes and communication). Two objective functions (OF) were standardized for the IPv6 routing protocol for LLNs (RPL): objective function zero (OF0) and minimum rank with hysteresis objective function (MRHOF). The standard OF using only one metric, this makes the nodes select inefficient routes in the networks. In this paper, the author suggests an objective function with multiple metrics for overburdened nodes that balance the number of child nodes to optimize network lifetime. By designing a new objective function that takes three metrics instead of one into account to optimize routes, decrease the average hop count, decrease the average ETX, and increase network stability. The tool used in this study is the Contiki3/ Cooja simulator, which includes three network topologies (50, 55, and 60 nodes), and compares the results of the proposed objective function with the MRHOF, and the results showed that the proposed objective function succeeded in enhancing the RPL protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), ETX, network routing stability, and the average number of hops. The best performance of the proposed protocol is shown in the network with 60 nodes.


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How to Cite

HADAIA, N. N., & ALABADY, S. A. (2023). PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF RPL ROUTING PROTOCOL IN THE IOT ERA. Quantum Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 4(2), 24–36. Retrieved from