PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ANALYSIS OF BITTER GARDEN EGG PENICEL EXTRACT
Keywords:phytochemical screening, antibacterial analysis, penicel extract, bitter garden egg, drug resistance
Bitter garden eggs are highly valued content of Nigerian food which are mostly consumed in both rural and urban area due to their nutritional and medicinal value, this study seeks to identify the various chemical compounds present in the penicel extract of bitter garden egg found in Sokoto region and also to evaluate its antibacterial active agent (compound) for the possibility of using them in the development of new antibiotics to reduce cost of health care and mortality rate due to resistance of bacteria to already developed drugs. The bitter garden egg penicel was found to a percentage moisture content of 38.80 %. Cool extraction method was adopted to extract the penicel of the bitter garden egg using three different solvent (n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol) and also standard methods were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the extracts. The result obtained from solvent extraction of bitter garden egg penicel revealed that n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol had a mass with percentage yield of 2.19 g, 7.30 %, 0.90 g, 3.19 % and 3.20 g, 11.90 % respectively. The result of the extraction revealed that Bitter garden egg penicel consists of more polar compounds than non-polar ones. The phytochemical screening of the penicel extracts of Bitter garden egg revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids, while antharaquinones and cardiac glycoside were not detected. The results of the antibacterial studies revealed that the fractions has activity on the selected bacteria strain (S. aureus, E. coli and Shigella) with zone of inhibition that ranges between 2-10 mm. these results shows that the penicel of bitter garden egg has a potential for the development of new antibiotic drugs.
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