• IBRAHIM MUHAMMAD Faculty of Science, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.
  • ZAIDU ISHAQ Faculty of Science, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria.


phytochemical screening, antibacterial analysis, penicel extract, bitter garden egg, drug resistance


Bitter garden eggs are highly valued content of Nigerian food which are mostly consumed in both rural and urban area due to their nutritional and medicinal value, this study seeks to identify the various chemical compounds present in the penicel extract of bitter garden egg found in Sokoto region and also to evaluate its antibacterial active agent (compound) for the possibility of using them in the development of new antibiotics to reduce cost of health care and mortality rate due to resistance of bacteria to already developed drugs. The bitter garden egg penicel was found to a percentage moisture content of 38.80 %. Cool extraction method was adopted to extract the penicel of the bitter garden egg using three different solvent (n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol) and also standard methods were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the extracts. The result obtained from solvent extraction of bitter garden egg penicel revealed that n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol had a mass with percentage yield of 2.19 g, 7.30 %, 0.90 g, 3.19 % and 3.20 g, 11.90 % respectively. The result of the extraction revealed that Bitter garden egg penicel consists of more polar compounds than non-polar ones. The phytochemical screening of the penicel extracts of Bitter garden egg revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids, while antharaquinones and cardiac glycoside were not detected. The results of the antibacterial studies revealed that the fractions has activity on the selected bacteria strain (S. aureus, E. coli and Shigella) with zone of inhibition that ranges between 2-10 mm. these results shows that the penicel of bitter garden egg has a potential for the development of new antibiotic drugs.


Akintobi, O.A., Agunbiade, S.O., Okonko, I.O., Ojo, O.V. (2011): Antimicrobial evaluation and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of Mirabilis jalapa against some human pathogenic bacteria. – Nature and Science 9(10): 45-53.

Bahl, A. (2010): Advanced organic chemistry. – S.Chand & Company Limited 1528p.

Bhumi, G., Savithramma, N. (2014): Screening of pivotal medicinal plants for qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents. – International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 6(3): 63-65.

Cushnie, T.T., Lamb, A.J. (2005): Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. – International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 26(5): 343-356.

Dalziel, J.M. (1937): The useful plants of west tropical Africa. – Crown Agents for the Colonies, London 612p.

El-Olemy, M.M., Al-Muhtadi, F.J., Afifi, A.F.A. (1994): Experimental phytochemistry: A laboratory manual. – King Saud University Press 143p.

Gad, H.A., Mamadalieva, N.Z., Böhmdorfer, S., Rosenau, T., Zengin, G., Mamadalieva, R.Z., Al Musayeib, N.M., Ashour, M.L. (2021): GC-MS based identification of the volatile components of six Astragalus species from Uzbekistan and their biological activity. – Plants 10(1): 120.

Galeotti, F., Barile, E., Curir, P., Dolci, M., Lanzotti, V. (2008): Flavonoids from carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) and their antifungal activity. – Phytochemistry Letters 1(1): 44-48.

Garrod, L.P., O'grady, F. (1971): Antibiotic and chemotherapy. – Edinburg, Churchill Livingstone 546p.

Harborne, A.J. (1998): Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. – Springer Science & Business Media 302p.

Jaeger, P.M.L., Hepper, F.N. (1986): A review of the genus Solanum in Africa. – Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics 14p.

Halilu, M.E., October, N., Balogun, M., Agunu, A., Abubakar, A., Abubakar, M.S. (2013): Isolation and characterization of steroids from petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Parinari curatellifolia Planch ex. Benth (Chrysobalanaceae). – Journal of Natural Sciences Research 3(6): 53-61.

Harborne, J.B., Harborne, J.B. (1973): Methods of plant analysis. – Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis, Springer Link 32p.

Peng, W., Qin, R., Li, X., Zhou, H. (2013): Botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and potential application of Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc.: A review. – Journal of Ethnopharmacology 148(3): 729-745.

Ramamurthy, C.H., Subastri, A., Suyavaran, A., Subbaiah, K.C.V., Valluru, L., Thirunavukkarasu, C. (2016): Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit attenuates cadmium-induced liver and kidney damage through modulation of oxidative stress and glycosylation. – Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23: 7919-7929.

Rhen, T., Cidlowski, J.A. (2005): Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids-new mechanisms for old drugs. – New England Journal of Medicine 353(16): 1711-1723.

Salunkhe, D.K., Chavan, J.K. (1989): Dietary tannins: consequences and remedies. – CRC Press 208p.

Sharma, P.C., Yelne, M.B., Dennis, T.J., Joshi, A., Billore, K.V. (2000): Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda. – Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, Deptt. of ISM & H, Min. of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India 3: 621p.

Sofowora, A. (1996): Research on medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. – The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2(3): 365-372.

Trease, G.E., Evans, W.C. (1989): Pharmacognosy, Bailliere Tindall. – London 2p.

Usman, H., Osuji, J.C. (2007): Phytochemical and in vitro antimicrobial assay of the leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis. – African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 4(4): 476-480.

Vohora, S.B., Kumar, I., Khan, M.S.Y. (1984): Effect of alkaloids of Solanvm melongena on the central nervous system. – Journal of Ethnopharmacology 11(3): 331-336.




How to Cite

MUHAMMAD, I., & ISHAQ, Z. (2023). PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ANALYSIS OF BITTER GARDEN EGG PENICEL EXTRACT. Quantum Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, 4(2), 45–51. Retrieved from