EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTING MAIZE WITH SORGHUM WASTE ON BLOOD PARAMETERS OF BROILER IN NIGERIA
Keywords:substituting, maize, sorghum, waste, blood, broiler
This study investigated the effect of substitution of maize with sorghum waste on blood parameters of mixed sex Anak 2000 breed of broiler chickens in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Sixty 3 weeks old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained 0% sorghum waste as control (T1), Diet 2 contained 10% sorghum waste replacing maize (T2), Diet 3 contained 20% sorghum waste replacing maize (T3), Diet 4 contained 30% sorghum waste replacing maize (T4), and Diet 5 contained 40% sorghum waste replacing maize (T5). Each treatment consisted of 12 birds and each treatment was replicated three times in randomized complete block design (RCBD). The blood parameters determined were red blood cells (RBC) count, white blood cells (WBC) count, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), blood protein, blood glucose, blood calcium, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and blood phosphate. For RBC, PVC, Hb, and WBC analysis of variance indicated that the control (T1) had significantly (p<0.05) higher values than the other treatment groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) difference between treatments for MCV, MCH and MCHC and blood glucose. Birds in T3and T4 had significantly higher (p<0.05) blood protein than those in T1, T2 and T5. Also, T3, T4 and T5 treatment groups had significantly higher (p<0.05) blood calcium and blood phosphate than T1 and T2. From the results of this study, inclusion of sorghum waste tends to depress RBC, PCV, Hb, and WBC, and has no effect on MCV, MCH and MCHC and improved blood protein, blood phosphate and blood calcium.
Abeke, F.O., Ogundipe, S.O., Sekoni, A.A., Adeyinka, I.A., Abubakar, B.Y., Oni, O.O., Nwagu, B.I. (2003): Response of laying hens to dietary levels of heat treated sheep manure (HSM). – Nigerian Journal of Animal Science 6(2): 111-116.
Alaku, O., Moruppa, S.M. (1983): Body and carcass weight losses in goats during the advanced periods of the west African sahelian dry seasons. – World Review of Animal Production 19(2): 49-54.
Alikwe, P.C.N., Akinsoyinu, A.O., Babatunde, B.B., Ogunwole, O.A. (2005): The Replacement Value of Rumen Epithelial Scrapping Meal (RESM) for Fish Meal in the Diets of Broilers. – Tropical Animal Science Journal 8(1): 69-73.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1990): Official Methods of Analysis (15th ed.). – Washington DC, USA. P. 771p.
Atteh, J.O. (2004): Theory and practice of poultry production. – Adlek Printers 64: 2-4.
Balasch, J., Palacios, L., Musquera, S., Palomeque, J., Jimenez, M., Alemany, M. (1973): Comparative hematological values of several galliformes. – Poultry Science 52(4): 1531-1534.
Bell, D.J., Freeman, B.M. (1971): Physiology and biochemistry of the domestic fowl. – London, UK, Academic Press, Inc. 337p.
Deaton, J.W., Reece, F.N., Tarver, W.J. (1969): Hematocrit, hemoglobin and plasma-protein levels of broilers reared under constant temperatures. – Poultry Science 48(6): 1993-1996.
Durunna, C.S., Udedibie, A.B.I., Anyanwu, G.A. (1999): Combinations of maize/sorghum-based dried brewers’ grain, cocoyam- corm, and cassava tuber meal as substitute for maize in the diets of laying hens. – J. Agric. Biotech. Environ. 2: 1-7.
Fanimo, A.O., Adebayo, A.J., Oduguwa, O.O., Biobaku, W.O. (2007): Feeding value of cashewnut testa for broiler chickens. – Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 34(1): 83-93.
Hunsaker, W.G. (1969): Effect of centrifugal force on packed cell volume and trapped plasma in avian blood. – Poultry Science 48(2): 705-711.
Huston, T.M., Edwards Jr, H.M., Williams, J.J. (1962): The effects of high environmental temperature on thyroid secretion rate of domestic fowl. – Poultry Science 41(2): 640-645.
Igwebuike, J.U., Alade, N.K., Ainyi, H.D. (1995): Effect of feeding graded levels of sorghum waste on the performance and organ weights of growing rabbits. – East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal 60(4): 193-200.
Ikeme, A.I. (1990): Meat Science and Technology. – Africans FEP Publishers, Ibadan 5p.
Kwari, I.D., Ubosi, C.O. (1991): Comparison of three housing systems for growing broiler chickens in hot dry climate 2: Effect of ambient temperature on blood components. – Journal of Agricultural Science Technology 1(2): 123-125.
Ladokun, A.O., Longe, O.G. (2004): The effect of replacing groundnut cake protein diet with cocoa bean meal protein on performance of broilers. – The Journal of Animal Science (TJAS) 7 (1): 91-97.
Meremikwu, V.N., Udedibie, A.B.I. (2007): The performance of finisher broilers under subsistence free range system of production. – Nigerian Journal of Animal Production 34 (2): 226-232.
Mueller, W.J. (1959): The effect of environmental temperature and humidity on the calcium balance and serum calcium of laying pullets. – Poultry Science 38(6): 1296-1301.
Newell, G.W., Shaffner, C.S. (1950): Blood volume determinations in chickens. – Poultry Science 29(1): 78-87.
Olomu, J.M. (2003): Poultry Production. – A Jachem Publication 320p.
Olomu, J.M. (1979): Poultry Nutrition Research: Its Contribution to the National Poultry Industry. Nutrient requirements, nutrients sources and nutrient content of feed ingredients. – In Proceedings of 1st National Seminar on Poultry Production, Zaria Nigeria 27p.
Pauzenga, U. (1985): Feeding parent stock. – Zootecnica International 17: 22-24.
Pollin, D., Sturkie, P.D. (1954): Effect of starvation on diffusible and non-diffusible plasma calcium in the fowl. – Poultry Science 33(5): 1p.
Siegmund, O.H. (1973): Mercks Veterinary Manual-A Handbook of Diagnosis and Therapy for Veterinarian. – Merck and Co., Inc. 1630p.
Soest, P.V., Wine, R.H. (1967): Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. IV. Determination of plant cell-wall constituents. – Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 50(1): 50-55.
Squibb, R.L., Reed, C.H. (1969): Nucleotide and amino acid rhythms in the chick under temperature stress. – Poultry Science 48(6): 1996-2005.
Swenson, M.J. (1970): Physiologic properties, cellular and chemical constituents of blood. – Dukes’ Physiology of Domestic Animals, Cornell University Press 8p.
Ubosi, C.O. (1988): Evaluation of three anti-stress, supplements in combating heat stress in the sahelian zone of Nigeria. – Journal of Arid Agriculture 1: 37-45.
Ubosi, C.O., Sekura, A.M. (2000): Effect of varying levels of full-fat soybean and groundnut cake intake on the performance of broilers in hot dry environment. – Proceeding of 25th Annual Conference Nigeria Society of Animal Prodroduction, University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State 4p.
Ugherughe, P.O., Ekedolum, P.A. (1986): Pasture and rangeland potentials of Borno state. – Annals of Borno 3: 179-192.
Vo, K.V., Boone, M.A. (1975): The effect of high temperatures on broiler growth. – Poultry Science 54(4): 1347-1348.